AMERICAN UNIVERSITYOF SHARJAH. MASTER OF URBAN PLANNING PROGRAMUPL 565- Land Use Planning Principles and Practice Course Examination, Spring 2014Read and answer all questions carefully. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. Obey the specific instructions for each question.Land as a resource is best viewed and planned in the context of the other natural resources or Life-Support Systems (LSS). In not more than 100 words, explain this viewpoint to a grassroots group in your city. Aldo Leopold, who started the discussion on land ethics, argues that: “Humans are part of a larger environment, and that larger environment is what we now call biodiversity, the right of human to live and survive cannot be disassociated from the environment and biodiversity and the rights of the entities that support our lives." Land is one of the five LSS: air, water, land, floara and fauna. Land provides habitat for all Life Supporting Systems and, therefore; any land use planning decision would have direct implications on the LSS such as air, water and life quality. For example, land use planning which does not consider the LSS has caused depletion of our most valuable natural resources and has resulted in fragmented open, loss of land crops and air and water pollution. As Land Use is the most visible of the sustainability topics, our challenge today is to manage trade-offs between immediate human needs and the long-term ability of the planet to provide for future generations.The distinction between urban planning in general and land use planning (LUP) in particular is described by some as so obfuscated that it is difficult to convince a lay person of their difference(s). Do you agree or disagree with this viewpoint? I agree that the distinction between urban planning in general and land use planning in particular may be difficult to be understood by a lay person. As a student of LUP, list any three specific reasons to support your position.In many parts of the world, the terms land use planning, urban planning, regional planning are often used interchangeably due to their interconnectedness such that lay people comprehend them as one function. Land use planning is one discipline of urban planning which specifically deals with public policy and seeks to regulate land use in an ethical way to prevent land use conflicts. Urban planning encompasses a broader scope of other disciplines such as spatial planning, transportation planning, smart growth and urban design. This distinction is often evident to urban planners but vague to lay people. Land use planning often deals with setting concrete legislative policies while urban planning is the deliberate guidance of thinking to achieve agreed upon goals within the legislative framework. While distinct, both processes, land use planning and urban planning, are often practiced by the same parties and agencies, making it difficult to see the difference between them by a lay person. As historic districts (think of case studies presented in class) go through regeneration, list any two problems/challenges that could arise under each of two goals (of your choice) of the four societal goal clusters. For each problem, propose a planning solution or initiative that you would recommend.The four societal goal clusters are: EnvironmentalEconomicPoliticalSocialAs historic districts go through regeneration, a number of challenges could arise under the following societal goals: Economic challengesRegeneration of historic districts requires a significant budget that developers may choose to spend on different developments. Regeneration of historic districts may not bring economic revenues equivalent to the cost of regeneration. Therefore, developers may be tempted to choose other types of developments to regenerate that they believe would generate more profits. This thinking often results in abandoned historic districts.Planning Solution: Specify a separate budget for the historic districts by the government and heritage conservation agencies. Altering the misconception of developers about the “non-profitable historic areas”. Heritage districts can be more profitable than any other development if public interest was properly directed towards these areas. For example, increased profits may result from providing services, access to transportation and community activity around historic areas. Social challengesRegeneration of historic districts may be socially unaccepted, especially to those residents who have built social ties and meanings to the heritage district. The social value of historic districts is not well appreciated by developers practicing self-interest based economy. Planning Solutions: Citizen participation and involvement in the planning process. Enlightening developers about the importance of heritage districts as cultural icons as well as profitable areas.Human activities will occur with or without LUP. Thus, there are no particular advantages or disadvantages to LUP. In not more than 100 words, critique this perspective.It is true that human activities will occur without LUP. However, unplanned human activities and anthropogenic factors result in serious impacts on land, which has a finite capacity. Here comes the importance of LUP as an essential to control, manage and plan human activities taking place on land. LUP sets policies that regulate human activities and provide efficient, equitable, ethical and sustainable land use practice. LUP principles protect human health and prevent land use conflicts which would otherwise occur if land was not managed. Describe ONE condition under which you would apply the following zoning tools? Please make complete, clear and intelligible sentences. Zoning toolCondition of/for application1. Inclusionary zoningTo provide affordable housing by people with low to middle income with the goal of creating income integrated communities. 2. Granny zoning clauseTo allow the owner of a property which was owned before zoning regulations were put into place to be exempt from the new regulations and to continue using his/her property using the previous regulations. This privilege exists as long as the same applicant owns the land.3. Transfer of Development RightsTo preserve the land owners’ assets values taking their rights from land where development is not allowed for the benefit of the city, community and public interest, and transferring it to another land. 4. Incentive/Bonus zoningTo diplomatically take the right of an owner in their land and provide it to him/her somewhere else with a density bonus; and incentive which enables the developer to increase density on the developed land.5. Spot zoningTo apply zoning on a specific parcel of land which is odd to the zoning of the larger master plan to which that land belongs. 6. Sunset zoning clauseTo set a law or legislation that ceases to exist at a specific time or date, unless it is reenacted by the legislator. 7. Overlay zoningTo provide a special zoning district over an existing zoning which adds special restrictions in addition to those underlying in the base zone. Overlay zoning may be used to protect areas of land with special requirements such as special habitat and historic areas. 8. Inverse condemnationIn the condition where a land owner refuses to give the land to the government even with just compensation, the government may take the private right of land by diminishing the economic value of land without providing just comensation.9. Urban Growth BoundaryTo control urban sprawl by creating a boundary that mandates areas inside it to use high density urban development.10. Heritage zoningTo conserve areas of land which hold significant heritage meanings to the city.