Realism is an artistic movement that started in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 revolution. It is an artistic style that is characterized by the depiction of subjects and landscapes as they appear through the eye. It grew from the idea that "art is meant to record the real world". Realist painters, as Gustave Courbet once said in the words "show me an angel, and I'll paint you one", believed that artists should paint their own world, otherwise this part of history might be lost forever.
For instance, Courbet, who is considered one of the most accepted ambassadors of realism, produced " Stone-breakers" in 1849. In it, Courbet depicts two mundane, stone breakers -an adult and a child- in order to reflect of the hardship of the most common labors of the time. This theme can be seen through the quality of their jeans, ripped shirts, and positions. The shadows and strokes of sunlight also amplifies the hard conditions under which those two people are working. Moreover, the change in tone colors and the inclusion of darker areas give a 3-dimensional feeling to the painting, a style that emerged through realism. Finally, the subjects in "Stone-breakers" are all unknown to the general public: they represent ordinary people. In lieu, Courbet, in "Stone-breakers", critics the social injustice that prevails in Paris in the late 1800s. The two lower-class man are working under uncomfortable conditions, and at low wages, to build the pavements of the beautiful tomorrow of Paris.
Thus, Courbet, like other realist artists, painted everyday life situations and ordinary people. That way, they were able to produce paintings that picture the struggles of life brought by the industrial and commercial revolutions, including social and economic injustice. Moreover, realist paintings are often characterized by the modes through which shadows were drawn, the use of dull colors that do change, and the angle-view perspective. Realism is an art movement that was started in response to romanticism; in fact, realism opposes romanticism, for its emotional exaggeration and painting of classical forms.
Isocephaly is an artistic style that started in ancient Greek art. It consisted of unifying a group of people by positioning their heads on a painting at the same level through a linear perspective, regardless of their heights. The high renaissance painter Leonardo Da Vinci employed this style in "The Last Supper" (1948)- Convent Sta. Maria Delle Grazie, Milan, Italy- to draw the viewer's attention to Jesus (ArtHD, 2010)
Impressionism is an art movement that started in the 19th century. It is considered the cradle of other movement, including post-impressionism, fauvism, and cubism. Impressionism disregarded the rules f traditional academic art, and exhibited independently, at the "Salon des Refusés".